Villeneuve-sur-Yonne - France
Villeneuve-sur-Yonne lies on the bank of the River Yonne, between the cities of Sens and Joigny. The city was founded in 1163 by Louis VII of France to protect the kingdom of France at the boundary of the Champagne region. The town is surrounded by a partly intact wall, built in the 12th century with two principal entrance gates both originally built in the 13th century - the Gate of Joigny or Porte de Joigny (rebuilt in the 16th century) and the Gate of Sens, or Porte de Sens. Other sights include Gothic Church of Notre-Dame de l'Assomption, the market built during the 19th century by Paul Sedille and a Neolithic standing stone on the banks of the river, called Pierre-Fritte or Plaine-des-Egriselles. In 1204 Philippe Auguste held parliament in the city, and Saint Louis resided in the city before departing for the Eighth Crusade. In 1594 the city was burnt down. During the French Revolution the name was changed from le-Roi (the king) to sur-Yonne (on the Yonne). In 1870 a memorial for the dead was designed by the sculptor emile Peynot. The city was governed from 1927 till 1935 by the infamous mayor Marcel Petiot, who was guillotined in 1946, convicted of 27 killings.